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四川苯酚批发商分析苯酚的化学性质是什么
2022-05-06
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  •   在化工作业中,J9九游会AG 通常会用到苯酚,这些关于苯酚的基础知识你都记住了吗?一起和四川苯酚批发商来了解下吧:

      (1)苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)酚(fen)(fen)的(de)(de)(de)弱(ruo)(ruo)酸性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing),是(shi)(shi)苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)环上(shang)(shang)(shang)(shang)相(xiang)连羟基的(de)(de)(de)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)质,而(er)(er)羟基不(bu)(bu)(bu)仅是(shi)(shi)苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)酚(fen)(fen)的(de)(de)(de)特征官(guan)能(neng)(neng)团(tuan),它(ta)还是(shi)(shi)醇(chun)(chun)(chun)的(de)(de)(de)特征官(guan)能(neng)(neng)团(tuan)。①实(shi)验(yan)(yan)与(yu)解(jie)(jie)析(xi)(xi):表1 苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)酚(fen)(fen)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)学(xue)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)质实(shi)验(yan)(yan)现象与(yu)问题解(jie)(jie)析(xi)(xi)实(shi)验(yan)(yan)步(bu)骤现象问题解(jie)(jie)析(xi)(xi)试管(guan)中(zhong)取少(shao)许(xu)苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)酚(fen)(fen)加(jia)(jia)热熔化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)后(hou),加(jia)(jia)入少(shao)许(xu)金属钠(na)有(you)气(qi)体产生(sheng)经点燃有(you)轻微的(de)(de)(de)爆鸣声苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)酚(fen)(fen)可(ke)(ke)和(he)金属钠(na)反应(ying)放(fang)出(chu)(chu)(chu)(chu)H2试管(guan)中(zhong)取少(shao)量(liang)苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)酚(fen)(fen)浑浊(zhuo)液逐(zhu)滴(di)(di)加(jia)(jia)入NaOH苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)酚(fen)(fen)溶(rong)(rong)液最(zui)后(hou)变(bian)为(wei)澄(cheng)清透明(ming)苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)酚(fen)(fen)可(ke)(ke)与(yu)强碱NaOH反应(ying)显(xian)(xian)弱(ruo)(ruo)酸性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)生(sheng)成(cheng)(cheng)苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)酚(fen)(fen)钠(na)在(zai)上(shang)(shang)(shang)(shang)述澄(cheng)清苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)酚(fen)(fen)钠(na)溶(rong)(rong)液中(zhong)缓慢(man)通(tong)入CO2澄(cheng)清溶(rong)(rong)液又(you)(you)复(fu)变(bian)为(wei)浑浊(zhuo)通(tong)入CO2生(sheng)成(cheng)(cheng)H2CO3比(bi)(bi)苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)酚(fen)(fen)酸性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)强又(you)(you)析(xi)(xi)出(chu)(chu)(chu)(chu)苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)酚(fen)(fen)使(shi)溶(rong)(rong)液变(bian)浑在(zai)上(shang)(shang)(shang)(shang)述浑浊(zhuo)溶(rong)(rong)液中(zhong)再滴(di)(di)加(jia)(jia)NaOH浑浊(zhuo)液又(you)(you)变(bian)澄(cheng)清上(shang)(shang)(shang)(shang)述实(shi)验(yan)(yan)生(sheng)成(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)酚(fen)(fen)又(you)(you)和(he)NaOH作用(yong)生(sheng)成(cheng)(cheng)苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)酚(fen)(fen)钠(na)②列表比(bi)(bi)较(jiao):表2 乙(yi)醇(chun)(chun)(chun)和(he)苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)酚(fen)(fen)的(de)(de)(de)比(bi)(bi)较(jiao) 乙(yi)醇(chun)(chun)(chun)苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)酚(fen)(fen)结构简(jian)式(shi)C2H5—OH特征官(guan)能(neng)(neng)团(tuan)—OH烃(ting)基—C2H5(乙(yi)基)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)学(xue)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)质相(xiang)同(tong)点均可(ke)(ke)和(he)金属钠(na)反应(ying)放(fang)出(chu)(chu)(chu)(chu)氢(qing)气(qi)2C­­2H5OH+2Na===2C2H5ONa+H2↑ 不(bu)(bu)(bu)同(tong)点羟基不(bu)(bu)(bu)显(xian)(xian)酸性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)羟基上(shang)(shang)(shang)(shang)的(de)(de)(de)氢(qing)原(yuan)子(zi)可(ke)(ke)微弱(ruo)(ruo)电离显(xian)(xian)弱(ruo)(ruo)酸性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)和(he)碱不(bu)(bu)(bu)反应(ying)和(he)NaOH作用(yong)生(sheng)成(cheng)(cheng)苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)酚(fen)(fen)钠(na)乙(yi)醇(chun)(chun)(chun)钠(na)不(bu)(bu)(bu)和(he)CO2反应(ying)CO2通(tong)入苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)酚(fen)(fen)钠(na)溶(rong)(rong)液又(you)(you)析(xi)(xi)出(chu)(chu)(chu)(chu)苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)酚(fen)(fen) ③小结:由(you)于乙(yi)醇(chun)(chun)(chun)和(he)苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)酚(fen)(fen)均具有(you)相(xiang)同(tong)的(de)(de)(de)官(guan)能(neng)(neng)团(tuan)——羟基,因(yin)而(er)(er)有(you)相(xiang)同(tong)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)学(xue)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)质的(de)(de)(de)一面;但乙(yi)醇(chun)(chun)(chun)上(shang)(shang)(shang)(shang)的(de)(de)(de)羟基不(bu)(bu)(bu)显(xian)(xian)酸性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing),而(er)(er)苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)酚(fen)(fen)羟基上(shang)(shang)(shang)(shang)的(de)(de)(de)氢(qing)原(yuan)子(zi)比(bi)(bi)较(jiao)活(huo)泼,可(ke)(ke)发(fa)生(sheng)极微弱(ruo)(ruo)电离而(er)(er)显(xian)(xian)弱(ruo)(ruo)酸性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(酸性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)极弱(ruo)(ruo)而(er)(er)不(bu)(bu)(bu)能(neng)(neng)使(shi)石蕊试剂变(bian)色),它(ta)们又(you)(you)具有(you)不(bu)(bu)(bu)同(tong)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)学(xue)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)质的(de)(de)(de)一面。十分(fen)明(ming)显(xian)(xian),这是(shi)(shi)由(you)于两(liang)种化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)合物(wu)中(zhong)羟基相(xiang)连的(de)(de)(de)烃(ting)基不(bu)(bu)(bu)同(tong),影响了羟基上(shang)(shang)(shang)(shang)的(de)(de)(de)氢(qing)原(yuan)子(zi)活(huo)泼性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)也不(bu)(bu)(bu)同(tong)。通(tong)过(guo)上(shang)(shang)(shang)(shang)述实(shi)验(yan)(yan)与(yu)比(bi)(bi)较(jiao),可(ke)(ke)以明(ming)显(xian)(xian)看出(chu)(chu)(chu)(chu):苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)酚(fen)(fen)、碳酸、乙(yi)醇(chun)(chun)(chun)其酸性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)大小的(de)(de)(de)顺序应(ying)是(shi)(shi):H2CO3> >C­2H5OH(中(zhong)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing))

      (2)苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)酚(fen)(fen)(fen)(fen)的(de)取(qu)(qu)(qu)代(dai)(dai)反(fan)(fan)(fan)(fan)(fan)应(ying)(ying),发(fa)生在(zai)苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)环上(shang)(shang)(shang)。可(ke)采用(yong)先复(fu)习(xi)苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)的(de)取(qu)(qu)(qu)代(dai)(dai)反(fan)(fan)(fan)(fan)(fan)应(ying)(ying),然后讲授苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)酚(fen)(fen)(fen)(fen)取(qu)(qu)(qu)代(dai)(dai)反(fan)(fan)(fan)(fan)(fan)应(ying)(ying),最后列(lie)表(biao)总(zong)(zong)结(jie)。也可(ke)采用(yong)边比较边讲解列(lie)表(biao)的(de)方(fang)法以使(shi)学生的(de)知识(shi)达到(dao)巩固加(jia)(jia)深、系统化(hua)的(de)目的(de)。①苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)酚(fen)(fen)(fen)(fen)与(yu)苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)取(qu)(qu)(qu)代(dai)(dai)反(fan)(fan)(fan)(fan)(fan)应(ying)(ying)的(de)比较:表(biao)3 苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)酚(fen)(fen)(fen)(fen)与(yu)苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)取(qu)(qu)(qu)代(dai)(dai)反(fan)(fan)(fan)(fan)(fan)应(ying)(ying)的(de)比较 苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)酚(fen)(fen)(fen)(fen)苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)反(fan)(fan)(fan)(fan)(fan)应(ying)(ying)物溴(xiu)水(shui)和苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)酚(fen)(fen)(fen)(fen)溶液(ye)(ye)液(ye)(ye)溴(xiu)和纯苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)反(fan)(fan)(fan)(fan)(fan)应(ying)(ying)条(tiao)件不用(yong)催化(hua)剂以少量(liang)Fe粉作(zuo)催化(hua)剂不加(jia)(jia)热(re)初(chu)(chu)始微(wei)热(re)或(huo)不加(jia)(jia)热(re)取(qu)(qu)(qu)代(dai)(dai)苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)环上(shang)(shang)(shang)氢(qing)原(yuan)子(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)多(duo)少一(yi)次反(fan)(fan)(fan)(fan)(fan)应(ying)(ying)可(ke)取(qu)(qu)(qu)代(dai)(dai)苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)基(ji)上(shang)(shang)(shang)三(san)个(ge)(ge)氢(qing)原(yuan)子(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)一(yi)般情况取(qu)(qu)(qu)代(dai)(dai)苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)环上(shang)(shang)(shang)一(yi)个(ge)(ge)氢(qing)原(yuan)子(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)反(fan)(fan)(fan)(fan)(fan)应(ying)(ying)速(su)(su)度瞬时完成初(chu)(chu)始缓慢后来速(su)(su)度加(jia)(jia)快(kuai)反(fan)(fan)(fan)(fan)(fan)应(ying)(ying)装置试管中(zhong)反(fan)(fan)(fan)(fan)(fan)应(ying)(ying)烧(shao)瓶中(zhong)反(fan)(fan)(fan)(fan)(fan)应(ying)(ying),长导管兼作(zuo)冷(leng)凝之用(yong)②小结(jie):在(zai)苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)酚(fen)(fen)(fen)(fen)与(yu)溴(xiu)的(de)取(qu)(qu)(qu)代(dai)(dai)反(fan)(fan)(fan)(fan)(fan)应(ying)(ying)中(zhong),由反(fan)(fan)(fan)(fan)(fan)应(ying)(ying)物浓(nong)度、反(fan)(fan)(fan)(fan)(fan)应(ying)(ying)条(tiao)件、取(qu)(qu)(qu)代(dai)(dai)氢(qing)原(yuan)子(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)多(duo)少、反(fan)(fan)(fan)(fan)(fan)应(ying)(ying)速(su)(su)度可(ke)知:苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)酚(fen)(fen)(fen)(fen)比苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)的(de)取(qu)(qu)(qu)代(dai)(dai)反(fan)(fan)(fan)(fan)(fan)应(ying)(ying)容(rong)易(yi)进(jin)行得(de)多(duo),这(zhei)是由于苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)酚(fen)(fen)(fen)(fen)中(zhong)苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)环上(shang)(shang)(shang)连(lian)接的(de)羟(qiang)基(ji)能(neng)使(shi)苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)基(ji)上(shang)(shang)(shang)的(de)氢(qing)原(yuan)子(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)更(geng)加(jia)(jia)活泼(po),促使(shi)苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)基(ji)上(shang)(shang)(shang)所发(fa)生取(qu)(qu)(qu)代(dai)(dai)反(fan)(fan)(fan)(fan)(fan)应(ying)(ying)更(geng)容(rong)易(yi)进(jin)行的(de)必然结(jie)果。总(zong)(zong)结(jie):通过上(shang)(shang)(shang)面两个(ge)(ge)苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)酚(fen)(fen)(fen)(fen)化(hua)学性质的(de)学习(xi),可(ke)知在(zai)苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)酚(fen)(fen)(fen)(fen)的(de)分子(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)中(zhong),苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)基(ji)影响了(le)与(yu)其相(xiang)连(lian)的(de)羟(qiang)基(ji)上(shang)(shang)(shang)的(de)氢(qing)原(yuan)子(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)促使(shi)其较易(yi)电离,显示了(le)比醇(chun)中(zhong)羟(qiang)基(ji)上(shang)(shang)(shang)的(de)氢(qing)原(yuan)子(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)有较明显的(de)酸性;而羟(qiang)基(ji)则反(fan)(fan)(fan)(fan)(fan)过来能(neng)影响与(yu)其相(xiang)连(lian)的(de)苯(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)基(ji)上(shang)(shang)(shang)的(de)氢(qing)原(yuan)子(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)更(geng)活泼(po)、更(geng)容(rong)易(yi)发(fa)生取(qu)(qu)(qu)代(dai)(dai)反(fan)(fan)(fan)(fan)(fan)应(ying)(ying)。这(zhei)是分子(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)中(zhong)官能(neng)团相(xiang)互(hu)影响,相(xiang)互(hu)制约的(de)有力证(zheng)明,它们(men)是矛盾的(de)又是统一(yi)的(de),二者存在(zai)于同一(yi)物质之中(zhong)。

      (3)苯酚和FeCl3溶(rong)液(ye)的(de)显色(se)反应(略)。


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